Here are some notes from Chapter 16 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- When setting up an interview, the PR professional should get an understanding of the purpose of the interview from the interviewer.
- Communication is two-way at a news conference, “the person speaking for a company or a cause submits to questioning by reporters, usually after a brief opening statement.”
- The important steps of speechwriting are (1) research, (2) figure out your objectives and approach, (3) write the speech, and (4) coach the speaker.
- When giving a speech or presentation, make sure that your message is understood with the language that you use, think about your audience, pay attention to the length of your presentation, remember to keep tabs on your nonverbal communication, and use visual aids.
Here are some notes from Chapter 15 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- Radio and television are important because they reach the “vast majority” of the American public on a day-to-day basis.
- Some guidelines from the Broadcast News Network on how to write a radio news release include: Timing your story by reading it out loud (slowly), getting your message across using the smallest amount of words and facts possible, using simple words in your release, and saying what you want and need to say right away.
- The four approaches for getting an organization’s news and viewpoints on local television stations are (1) send the same news release that the local print media receive, (2) a media alert or advisory informing the assignment editor about a specific event or occasion that could use video coverage, (3) to phone or e-mail the assignment editor and make a pitch for a specific story, and (4) produce a video news release package.
- A few “do’s” of satellite media tours are (1) get news stations involved by sending them items that will help them perform and promote the interview, (2) be clear in your pitch, and (3) respect producers when they do not immediately accept your pitch.
- A few “don’ts” of satellite media tours are (1) don’t be dishonest with the producers you pitch your SMT to, (2) don’t pitch your SMT to more than one producer at the same station, and (3) surprise the producer.
Here are some notes from Chapter 14 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- A news release is “a simple document whose primary purpose is the dissemination of information to mass media such as newspapers, broadcast stations, and magazines.”
- Questions that you should ask before writing a news release, while in the planning stages, are: (1) What is the key message? (2) Who is the primary audience for this release? (3) What does the target audience gain from the product or service? (4) What objective does the release serve?
- When writing a news release, use the inverted pyramid structure because the editor won’t use your release if they do not find the first few lines interesting, they cut stories from the bottom, and readers usually don’t read the full story (unless they are intrigued by the beginning).
- The purpose of a media kit is to “give editors and reporters a variety of information and resources that make it easier for the reporters to write about the topic.”
- The five methods of news releases, photos, and media advisories are (1) first-class mail, (2) fax, (3) e-mail, (4) electronic wire services, and (5) Web-based newsrooms.
Here are some notes from Chapter 11 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- Emerging audiences in the American society include Catholic and Evangelical groups, the Gay/Lesbian community, the disability community, and women.
- “The enormous impact of television on daily life has increased visual orientation, with many people obtaining virtually all of their news from the television screen.”
- The three major age groups that require “special attention” are youth and young adults, baby boomers, and seniors.
- Fernando Figueredo, head of the multicultural practice for Porter Novelli, gives five basic concepts that should be taken into account when developing a communications campaign for multicultural consumers: (1) Organize a team that understands the customs and values of the demographic groups that you are trying to reach. (2) Understand that consumers that have a diverse cultural background will respond better to messages that are “culturally relevant.” (3) Remember that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds are incredibly loyal and most likely will be the same way with your products. (4) Use the first language of your audience. (5) Utilize spokespersons who represent the audience.
Here are some notes from Chapter 10 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- Key components of conflict management are strategic, management, competition, and conflict.
- The conflict management life cycle includes four phases: (1) Proactive, (2) Strategic, (3) Reactive, and (4) Recovery.
- Some suggestions for how to communicate during a crisis include putting the public first, being honest, not saying, “no comment,” being accessible, and being familiar with media needs and deadlines.
- The three foundations of reputation are: (1) economic performance, (2) social responsiveness, and (3) the ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders.
- Professor William Benoit of the University of Missouri gives five strategies for image restoration: (1) denial, (2) evade responsibility, (3) reduce offensiveness, (4) corrective action, and (5) mortification.
Here are some notes from Chapter 9 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- “Public opinion is the collective expression of opinion of many individuals bound into a group by common aims, aspirations, needs, and ideals.
- Sociologists describe opinion leaders as: (1) highly interested in a subject or issue, (2) better informed on an issue than the average person, (3) avid consumers of mass media, (4) early adopters of new ideas, and (5) good organizers who can get other people to take action.
- The life cycle of public opinion includes (1) definition of the issue, (2) involvement of opinion leaders, (3) public awareness, (4) government/regulatory involvement, and (5) resolution.
- Persuasion is used to (1) change/neutralize hostile opinions, (2) crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes, and (3) conserve favorable opinions.
- The most common propaganda techniques are known as (1) plain folks, (2) testimonial, (3) bandwagon, (4) card stacking, (5) transfer, and (6) glittering generalities.
Here are some notes from Chapter 8 of Public Relations: Strategies & Tactics (9th Edition):
- Evaluation is the fourth step in the public relations process and it is the measurement of results against established objectives which are set during the previous step, planning.
- Computerized news clip analysis, survey sampling, quasi-experimental designs, and surveying the relationship between efforts and sales are all ways in which public relations professionals have “made progress,” in evaluation measurement.
- A few ways to measure supplemental activities are communication audits, pilot tests and split messages, meeting and even attendance, and newsletter readership.
- Within measure newsletter readership, you can evaluate by way of content analysis, readership interest surveys, article recall, and advisory boards.
- Ketchum’s Public Relations Effectiveness Yardstick: Level 1 (Basic)- Measuring targeted audiences, impressions, and media placements. Level 2 (Intermediate)- Measuring retention, comprehension, awareness, and reception. Level 3 (Advanced)- Measuring behavior change, attitude change, and opinion change.